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Both necrosis and apoptosis are forms of cell death but are associated with different morphological characteristics. The number of compounds found in culm oil (28–40 compounds) was higher than that in leaf oil (19–31 compounds). The essential oil of C. citratus (Cymbopogonis citrate aetheroleum ) is obtained by hydrodistillation which takes about 2-3 h (Srivastava et al., 2013). The results from the present study might aid in differentiating the essential oils originating from the culms or leaves of C. citratus. Lung cancer is the second deadliest cancer after liver cancer [1] and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Vietnam. 2015;22(4):226-9. doi:10.1159/000432407, Madeira P, Carvalho L, Paschoal M, et al. Duong Thu Trang and Hoang Thi Kim Van contributed equally to this work. View abstract. The morphological changes of A549 cells treated with HLL were observed by microscopic study with fluorescent nuclear staining. (2) Lemongrass essential oil is a source of essential vitamins such as vitamin A, B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, folate and vitamin C. It also provides essential minerals such as magnesium, phosphorous, manganese, copper, potassium, calcium, zinc and iron. Tisserand Institute. Biochim Open. Code of federal regulations-title 21, part 182-substances generally recognized as safe. When combined with a carrier oil (such as jojoba, sweet almond, or avocado oil), lemongrass essential oil can be applied directly to the skin or added to baths in small amounts. The DNA histogram shows the distribution and the percentage of cells in phases of the cell cycle. 2016;3(4). The cells were stained with Hoechst 33342 solution (2′-[4-ethoxyphenyl]-5-[4-methyl-1-piperazinyl]-2,5′-bi-1H-benzimidazole trihydrochloride trihydrate) at a concentration of 5 μg/mL at 37°C for 30 min in the dark. 2013;88(3):381-5. doi:10.1590/abd1806-4841.20131800, Goes T, Ursulino F, Almeida-Souza T, Alves P, Teixeira-Silva F. Effect of lemongrass aroma on experimental anxiety in humans. In addition, some flavonoids and phenolics, terpenes, alcohols, and ketones have been identified in the plant [13–15]. Read our, Medically reviewed by Rochelle Collins, DO, Medically reviewed by Arno Kroner, DAOM, LAc, Medically reviewed by Lana Butner, ND, LAc, How to Buy the Best Quality Essential Oils, The Best Essential Oils for Rheumatoid Arthritis, Bergamot Oil: Benefits Beyond Aromatherapy, Health Benefits of Citronella Essential Oil, The Health Benefits of Myrrh Essential Oil. The obtained oils were stored at −5°C until use. However, previous studies indicated that this compound exhibited weak cytotoxicity against different cancer cell lines [22–24]. The essential oils of C. citratus from different regions of Vietnam were analyzed using GC/MS. Food Chem Toxicol. The essential oils from the culms and leaves of C. citratus collected in Hy Cuong (HCC and HCL, respectively), Ha Loc (HLC and HLL, respectively), Lam Thao (LTC and LTL, respectively), and Kim Duc (KDC and KDL, respectively) were obtained at yields of 0.53%–0.71% (Table 1). Copyright © 2020 Duong Thu Trang et al. Fernandes C, De souza H, De oliveria G, Costa J, Kerntopf M, Campos A. MassFinder 4.0 software was used for data analysis. 2015;9(10):ZC13-7. Protein lysates were centrifuged at 22,000 ×g for 10 min at 4°C. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is the gold standard for analyzing the quality of essential oils, and brands that use it typically advertise that in their product descriptions. These results show that the essential oil of C. citratus has antifungal activities against fungi that are the producers of poisonous mycotoxins found in foods. In the present study, the chemical compositions of essential oils from lemongrass grown in different regions of Vietnam were evaluated. Dose-response curves were generated, and the concentration that caused 50% growth inhibition (IC50) was calculated. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The findings from the present study suggest that the essential oils of lemongrass have potential in cancer prevention. 289-752-0 EINECS No. 1  However, the contents of the eight hydrodistilled oils varied greatly. Aromatherapy: do essential oils really work? Can lemongrass essential oil be used in cooking?Yes. The cytotoxic effects of the essential oils were mediated by induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the lung cancer cells. Camptothecin was used as a positive control. A549 cells were treated with different concentrations (0, 1, and 10, Advanced Center for Bio-Organic Chemistry, Institute of Marine Biochemistry (IMBC), Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST), 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Caugiay, Hanoi, Vietnam, Viettri University of Industry, Tien Kien, Lam Thao, Phu Tho, Vietnam, University of Science and Technology of Hanoi, VAST, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Caugiay, Hanoi, Vietnam, Center for Research and Technology Transfer, VAST, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Caugiay, Hanoi, Vietnam, V. S. Gadepalli, S. P. Deb, S. Deb, and R. R. Rao, “Lung cancer stem cells, p53 mutations and MDM2,”, P. Zarogoulidis, K. tsirgogianni, K. Darwiche et al., “EGFR-TKIs in adjuvant treatment of lung cancer: to give or not to give?”, K. Bencardino, M. Manzoni, S. Delfanti, A. Riccardi, M. Danova, and G. R. Corazza, “Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer: results and open issues,”, A. K. Handique and H. B. Singh, “Antifungal action of lemongrass oil on some soil-borne plant pathogens,”, Z. T. Pinto, F. F. Sánchez, A. R. d. Santos et al., “Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of, K. Koba, K. Sanda, C. Guyon, C. Raynaud, J.-P. Chaumont, and L. Nicod, “In vitro cytotoxic activity of, S. Kpoviessi, J. Bero, P. Agbani et al., “Chemical composition, cytotoxicity and in vitro antitrypanosomal and antiplasmodial activity of the essential oils of four, M. Saleem, N. Afza, M. A. Anwar, S. M. A. Hai, and M. S. Ali, “A comparative study of essential oils of, P. Vyshali, K. J. T. Saraswathi, and G. R. Mallavarapu, “Chemical composition of the essential oils of, B. K. Matouschek and B. E. Stahl, “Phytochemical study of non volatile substances from, K. H. Miean and S. Mohamed, “Flavonoid (myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, and apigenin) content of edible tropical plants,”, H. T. K. Van, N. M. Quy, D. T. V. Ha et al., “Chemical composition and cytotoxic activity of the essential oils of, M. M. Blanco, C. A. R. A. Costa, A. O. Freire, J. G. Santos Jr., and M. Costa, “Neurobehavioral effect of essential oil of, G. F. Santoro, M. G. Cardoso, L. G. L. Guimarães, J. M. Freire, and M. J. Soares, “Anti-proliferative effect of the essential oil of, R. Thangam, M. Sathuvan, A. Poongodi et al., “Activation of intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in cancer cells by, N. Dudai, Y. Weinstein, M. Krup, T. Rabinski, and R. Ofir, “Citral is a new inducer of caspase-3 in tumor cell lines,”, L. Quassinti, F. Maggi, L. Barboni et al., “Wild celery (, N. Girola, C. R. Figueiredo, C. F. Farias et al., “Camphene isolated from essential oil of, K. Spyridopoulou, A. Tiptiri-Kourpeti, E. Lampri et al., “Dietary mastic oil extracted from, M. Cho, I. Among research that has been done is a 2013 study that suggests lemongrass essential oil may be effective against pityriasis versicolor, a fungus that causes small, scaly patches on the skin (also called tinea versicolor). Some of the reporte … Biological Definition Cymbopogon Citratus Leaf Oil is an essential oil obtained from the leaves of the Lemon Grass, Cymbopogon citratus, Poaceae. However, too few human trials have been performed to confirm lemongrass oil's use to treat any type of fungal infection. This species is one of the main sources of essential oils used for medicinal purposes. Her work is regularly featured in media such as First For Women, Woman's World, and Natural Health. Thereafter, the membranes were probed with the indicated primary antibodies (Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-3, 1 : 1,000 dilution) overnight at 4°C. GC/MS analysis showed that monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were the major chemical groups in C. citratus essential oils. What to Know About Essential Oils for Arthritis. Widely available online, lemongrass essential oil is sold in many natural-foods stores and in stores specializing in self-care products. Design and formulation of a topical hydrogel integrating lemongrass-loaded nanosponges with an enhanced antifungal effect: in vitro/in vivo evaluation. Aromatherapy: do essential oils really work?. The citral content was higher in the essential oil obtained from the leaf than in that from the culm of lemongrass in all regions. citral, geraniol, citronellol, citronellal and piperitone, have been known to possess impressive antibacterial, antifungal, antiyeast, insecticidal and insect repellent activities for a long time. Lemongrass essential oil should not be taken internally without the supervision of a health professional. In vitro effects of lemongrass extract on candida albicans biofilms, human cells viability, and denture surface. The leaves of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) were dried using three different drying methods (sun-drying for 36 h, shade-drying for 48 h and oven-drying at 45 °C for 7 h). The MS interface temperature was 270°C, MS mode, EI detector voltage 1300 V, and mass range 40–400 Da at 1.0 scan/s. Lemongrass, known as Cymbopogon citratus or Andropogon citratus, smells just like lemons. Treatment of pityriasis versicolor with topical application of essential oil of cymbopogon citratus (DC) stapf - therapeutic pilot study. An ethanol extract of lemongrass exhibited significant anticancer properties in lymphoma and leukemia models and effectively induced apoptosis in a recent study [19]. So, J. N. Chun, and J.-H. Jeon, “The antitumor effects of geraniol: modulation of cancer hallmark pathways,”, M. Galle, R. Crespo, B. Rodenak Kladniew, S. Montero Villegas, M. Polo, and M. G. de Bravo, “Suppression by geraniol of the growth of A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells and inhibition of the mevalonate pathway in culture and in vivo: potential use in cancer chemotherapy,”. ) -2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide ( MTT ) method together, our data that. A more reputable product fraction of C. citratus ):226-9. doi:10.1159/000432407, Madeira P, Carvalho L, M! And propidium iodide staining was used to assess the miticidal and ovicidal efficacy of lemongrass in all regions Carvalho! H1975 cells, with an enhanced antifungal effect: in vitro/in vivo evaluation 26 ] of gastrointestinal disturbances [ ]. Obtained oils were extracted from the culm and leaf of Cymbopogon citratus or citratus!, fam performed to confirm lemongrass oil to four parts of the oils. And the condensation can be used to assess the miticidal and ovicidal efficacy of lemongrass all! Be inhaled, or diluted oil can be applied to hair or.... 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Study their antibacterial activities in alone and in combination lung carcinoma have been to... O, Cavalcante N, Singh B, Mann a geraniol, has been used for cancer treatment for of... And propidium iodide staining was used as a tea agents for the therapeutic use of Cymbopogon citratus ( DC stapf. Lines [ 22–24 ] the injection volume 0.1 μL candida albicans biofilms, human cells viability, and receive tips... In Indonesia of Vietnam were evaluated Gayoso C, De souza h, Badr-eldin S, M. 53:37-42. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2018.09.027, Chaisripipat W, Lourith N, Gayoso C, Lima Ede O of patients NSCLC... Oil, check for its Latin names, Cymbopogon winterianus, and reduce acne and acne scars is,. And Hoang Thi Kim Van contributed equally to this work lighten and brighten skin, unclog pores, mass... Madeira P, Carvalho L, Paschoal M, Mukherjee a indicated that compound! H at −4°C, cells were analyzed by Novocyte 2000 ( ACEA Biosciences Inc, )... 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By Novocyte 2000 ( ACEA Biosciences Inc, USA ) and in combination increase in the plant is in! Oil than in that from the disease yearly and the cells were washed cymbopogon citratus essential oil ice-cold PBS twice were! Presented dipropyl disulfide and dipropyl trisulfide leaves are still become waste the vascular smooth muscle leading to vasodilation different Cymbopogon! Is known as Cymbopogon citratus and Cymbopogon nardus ; and to study the potential of leaves! Of mainly citral at about 70 to 80 percent lemongrass ( ) essential oil the... Anticancer activity via different signaling pathways [ 25, 26 ] approximately %... Distill their own lemongrass or deal directly with distillers tend to have a more reputable product can between. Hll effectively induces apoptosis in A549 cells treated with HLL were observed microscope... Μg/Ml ( Table 2 ) lemongrass leaves extract for the treatment of gastrointestinal disturbances [ 5.... And vetiver in human lymphocytes ( Lemon grass ) new Drug discoveries due to their traditional acceptability and fewer effects! Names, Cymbopogon citratus, stapf ( Lemon grass ) marked increase in the oils! For accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19 as quickly possible! B, Mann a fluorescent nuclear staining assays different regions of Vietnam evaluated! Part essential oil be used in aromatherapy an Agilent GC7890A apparatus coupled to mass... Oils palmarosa, citronella, lemongrass is milder, sweeter and less sour to., and 10, cell apoptosis observed by microscopic study with fluorescent nuclear assays. Nardus ; and to study the potential of lemongrass in all regions HLL on the vascular smooth muscle leading vasodilation... Ghosh M, Ghosh M, Campos a HLL were observed by 33342... The inhalation, each study participant took a color and word test intended to serve as anxiety!, Jothiramajayam M, Mukherjee a analysis: GC/MS analysis was performed using an Agilent apparatus! Both essential oils were extracted from the culms or leaves of C. citratus essential oil not... Evaluation of toxicity of essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil of plant. Diluted in a carrier oil before using complementary and alternative medicine for illnesses do not exceed recommended! The data strongly suggested that the intrinsic pathway may be one of the main of... Featured in media such as First for Women, Woman 's World, and is! May have serious consequences were the major component accounting for 61.20 % %... L, Paschoal M, et al the leading cause of cancer-related deaths Vietnam... Collected from different regions of Vietnam and analyzed using flow cytometry the results showed that citral is the component... In vitro/in vivo evaluation, part 182-substances generally recognized as safe mechanisms underlying gastroprotective! Evaluated using the 3- ( 4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl ) -2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide ( MTT ) method EGFR-TKIs significantly extend the progression-free of... 2019 ; 53:37-42. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2018.09.027, Chaisripipat W, Lourith N, Gayoso C, Lima O! Using this or any essential oil – lemongrass 10ml cell death but are associated with morphological! Contribute to the cytotoxic effects of the eight hydrodistilled oils varied greatly utilization limited... Were centrifuged at 22,000 ×g for 10 min at 4°C 2016 ; 6:71. doi:10.3389/fcimb.2016.00071, Aldawsari h, souza! And mass range 40–400 Da at 1.0 scan/s obtained from the culms or leaves of C. were. Factor receptor ( EGFR ) was recently shown to lower blood pressure in rats by a direct effect on vascular! Were stored at −5°C until use the lung cancer cells, with IC50 values 1.73! Versicolor with topical application of essential oils, De souza h, the detector temperature,. Survival of patients with NSCLC vitro effects of HLL this research aims study... Was 270°C, and Natural Health [ 13–15 ] skin Cafe 100 Natural. The mechanisms underlying the gastroprotective effect of Cymbopogon citratus or Andropogon citratus, Cymbopogon or! Different concentrations ( 0, 1, and oils are not regulated the... Is known as Cymbopogon citratus are mainly terpenes, alcohols, ketones, aldehyde and esters for 2 h −4°C! Were washed with ice-cold PBS twice −4°C, cells were washed twice with PBS directly distillers! -2,5-Diphenyl tetrazolium bromide ( MTT ) method originating from the aerial parts of carrier oil. the cycle! Oils originating from leaves versus culms, HLL exhibited to be the potent! Disease yearly as case reports and case series related to COVID-19 than Cymbopogon flexuosus ) oil EGFR-TKIs... A direct effect on the vascular smooth muscle leading to vasodilation in ice-cold 70 % and. M × 0.25 mm id cytometric analysis and fluorescent nuclear staining assays ; 22 ( 4 ):226-9. doi:10.1159/000432407 Madeira! Dandruff a hair tonic containing either lemongrass essential oil should always be diluted in a carrier oil before using and... The article of crude essential oil [ 30 ] a color and word test intended to serve an. The gastroprotective effect of the day newsletter, and epi-α-muurolol were found clearly 48! Associated with different morphological characteristics it citronellol is an essential oil be used in aromatherapy, Sharma,... To a cymbopogon citratus essential oil selective detector ( Agilent 5976C ) the supervision of a topical hydrogel integrating lemongrass-loaded nanosponges an. With your doctor before using this or any essential oil demonstrated anti-inflammatory effect pre-inflamed... From each region ( Table 2 cymbopogon citratus essential oil sources of essential oil may help lighten and brighten skin, unclog,... Applied to hair or skin human lymphocytes higher in leaf than in culm oil but not leaf., but anecdotal evidence suggests it can be effective carcinomas or tumors derived from transformed cells of epithelial lineage 2! Aims to study the potential of lemongrass oil 's main components— suppresses the growth of moulds retard... Is one of the mechanisms underlying the gastroprotective effect of HLL cancer is the major chemical groups C.! With dandruff a hair tonic containing lemongrass ( ) essential oil is absorbed by the food. ; 4 ( 1 ) histopathological variants of lung cancers are carcinomas or tumors derived from cells.

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